History[ edit ] In the decades following United States' invasion of Cuba inand formal independence from the U. Fulgencio Batistaa former soldier who had served as the elected president of Cuba from tobecame president for the second time inafter seizing power in a military coup and canceling the elections.
These neolithic cultures utilised ground stone and shell tools and ornaments, including the dagger -like gladiolitos, which are believed to have had a ceremonial role. These people had migrated north along the Caribbean island chain.
Initially, they settled at the eastern end of Cuba, before expanding westward across the island. They also grew cotton and tobaccoand ate maize and sweet potatoes.
According to History of the Indians, they had "everything they needed for living; they had many crops, well arranged". Columbus, who was searching for a route to India, believed the island to be a peninsula of the Asian mainland. All were of palm branches, beautifully constructed". After a prolonged guerrilla campaign, Hatuey and successive chieftains were captured and burnt alive, and within three years the Spanish had gained control of the island.
Ina settlement was founded in what was to become Havana. According to his account, some three thousand villagers had traveled to Manzanillo to greet the Spanish with loaves, fishes and other foodstuffs, and were "without provocation, butchered".
One such reservation was Guanabacoawhich is today a suburb of Havana. The scheme was not a success, however, as the natives either succumbed to diseases brought from Spain such as measles and smallpoxor simply refused to work, preferring to slip away into the mountains.
However, these new arrivals followed the indigenous peoples by also dispersing into the wilderness or dying of disease. The Spanish were shown by the natives how to nurture tobacco and consume it in the form of cigars. There were also many unions between the largely male Spanish colonists and indigenous women.
Modern-day studies have revealed traces of DNA that renders physical traits similar to Amazonian tribes in individuals throughout Cuba,  although the native population was largely destroyed as a culture and civilization after Under the Spanish New Laws ofindigenous Cuban were freed from encomienda, and seven towns for indigenous peoples were set up.
An association of indigenous families in Jiguani, near Santiago, is also active. Slavery in Cuba The Spanish established sugar and tobacco as Cuba's primary products, and the island soon supplanted Hispaniola as the prime Spanish base in the Caribbean.
African slaves were then imported to work the plantations as field labor. However, restrictive Spanish trade laws made it difficult for Cubans to keep up with the 17th and 18th century advances in processing sugar cane pioneered in British Barbados and French Saint-Domingue Haiti.
Spain also restricted Cuba's access to the slave tradewhich was dominated by the British, French, and Dutch. One important turning point came in the Seven Years' Warwhen the British conquered the port of Havana and introduced thousands of slaves in a ten-month period. Another key event was the Haitian Revolution in nearby Saint-Domingue, from to Thousands of French refugees, fleeing the slave rebellion in Saint Domingue, brought slaves and expertise in sugar refining and coffee growing into eastern Cuba in the s and early 19th century.
In the 19th century, Cuban sugar plantations became the most important world producer of sugar, thanks to the expansion of slavery and a relentless focus on improving the island's sugar technology. Use of modern refining techniques was especially important because the British Slave Trade Act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire but slavery itself remained legal until the Slavery Abolition Act Cubans were torn between desire for the profits generated by sugar and a repugnance for slavery, which they saw as morally, politically, and racially dangerous to their society.
By the end of the 19th century, slavery was abolished. However, prior to the abolition of slavery, Cuba gained great prosperity from its sugar trade.
Originally, the Spanish had ordered regulations on trade with Cuba, which kept the island from becoming a dominant sugar producer. The Spanish were interested in keeping their trade routes and slave trade routes protected. Nevertheless, Cuba's vast size and abundance of natural resources made it an ideal place for becoming a booming sugar producer.
When Spain opened the Cuban trade ports, it quickly became a popular place. New technology allowed a much more effective and efficient means of producing sugar.
They began to use water mills, enclosed furnaces, and steam engines to produce higher-quality sugar at a much more efficient pace than elsewhere in the Caribbean. The boom in Cuba's sugar industry in the 19th century made it necessary for the country to improve its transportation infrastructure.
Planters needed safe and efficient ways to transport the sugar from the plantations to the ports, in order to maximize their returns. Many new roads were built, and old roads were quickly repaired. Railroads were built relatively early, easing the collection and transportation of perishable sugar cane.
It was now possible for plantations all over this large island to have their sugar shipped quickly and easily.May 31, · On this day in , facing a popular revolution spearheaded by Fidel Castro’s 26th of July Movement, Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista flees the island nation.
Amid celebration and chaos in the. The author of this book writes from a position of obvious sympathy for the aims and objects of the Cuban revolution, but combines this with an honest approach to the many situations where the they have failed to live up to those expectations.
May 31, · On this day in , facing a popular revolution spearheaded by Fidel Castro’s 26th of July Movement, Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista flees . The Cuban revolution inspired revolutionaries throughout Latin America as idealistic young men and women took up arms to try and change hated governments for new ones.
The results were mixed.
In Nicaragua, rebel Sandinistas eventually did overthrow the government and come to power. The author of this book writes from a position of obvious sympathy for the aims and objects of the Cuban revolution, but combines this with an honest approach to the many situations where the they have failed to live up to those expectations.
The Cuban Revolution (Spanish: Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.