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Before the introduction of the printing pressfrontalization was indicated by placing an e after the back vowel to be modified, but German printers developed the space-saving typographical convention of replacing the full e with a small version placed above the vowel to be modified.
In German Kurrent writing, the superscripted e was simplified to two vertical dashes, which have further been reduced to dots in both handwriting and German typesetting. Although the two dots of umlaut look like those in the diaeresis tremathe two have different origins and functions.
However, such transcription should be avoided if possible, especially with names. Automatic back-transcribing is not only wrong for names.
Consider, for example, das neue Buch "the new book". Similar cases are Coesfeld and Bernkastel-Kues. Uppercase umlauts were dropped because they are less common than lowercase ones especially in Switzerland. The omission can cause some inconvenience since the first letter of every noun is capitalized in German.
Unlike in Hungarianthe exact shape of the umlaut diacritics — especially when handwritten — is not important, because they are the only ones in the language not counting the tittle on i and j. In rare cases the n was underlined. The German spelling reform of somewhat reduced usage of this letter in Germany and Austria.
It is not used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The proper transcription when it cannot be used, is ss sz and SZ in earlier times. Init was included in Unicode 5.
This required a change of habits and is often disregarded: If the vowel is short, it becomes ss, e. This follows the general rule in German that a long vowel is followed by a single consonant, while a short vowel is followed by a double consonant.
It was already mostly abolished in the late 19th century and finally with the first unified German spelling rulebook of in favor of the Abel spelling that put focus on logical word ends.
It is therefore recommended to insert hyphens where required for reading assistance, i. The use of hyphens here is, however, somewhat frowned upon as it is considered a dumbing down of the written language.
Greek sigma and sometimes it was historically used in antiqua fonts as well; but it went out of general use in the early s along with the Fraktur typeface. Sorting[ edit ] There are three ways to deal with the umlauts in alphabetic sorting.
Treat them like their base characters, as if the umlaut were not present DINsection 6. In words which are the same except for one having an umlaut and one its base character e.
Decompose them invisibly to vowel plus e DINsection 6. Microsoft Windows in German versions offers the choice between the first two variants in its internationalisation settings. A sort of combination of nos. The umlaut is sorted with the base character, but an ae, oe, ue in proper names is sorted with the umlaut if it is actually spoken that way with the umlaut getting immediate precedence.
Eszett is sorted as though it were ss. Occasionally it is treated as s, but this is generally considered incorrect. Accents in French loanwords are always ignored in collation. In rare contexts e.Harvard Study Finds Fluoride Lowers IQ - Published in Federal Gov't Journal - This REUTERS press release (since vanished from the archives) is a very effective way to grab your attention, and even though the headline is a false representation of the study's actual stated conclusions, slightly different versions are still used by fluoridation opponents.
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