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Describe the conditions in Europe after World War II Sample Answer Europe was physically devastated by the war; its cities were destroyed, refugees numbered in the tens of millions, and its infrastructure was inoperative.
There were shortages of food, shelter, and fuel; and brutality by occupying armies was widespread, particularly in the areas controlled by the Soviet Union.
Refugees faced hostility and violence as they competed for scarce resources, and Jews in particular endured further suffering, confronted by anti-Semitism and violence, especially in eastern Europe.
On the other hand, the defeat of Nazism inspired an upsurge of hope, a revival of religious feeling, and a new commitment to humanitarian goals. Sample Answer After the war, the United States was the richest country in the world.
It had amassed great wealth during the war and its strong economy was characterized by continued industrial and military research, a wave of suburban housing development, strong consumer spending, and a "baby boom" all symbols of its singular prosperity.
The United States also began to embrace its role as a global leader, shedding much of its prewar tendency toward isolationism and assuming a leading role in shaping the postwar world. What were the origins of the cold war? Stalin perceived his country threatened by the West and its anti-Communist policies and believed that the USSR required a permanent "buffer zone" of loyal, Communist, European states as a blockade against a Western menace.
Similarly, the United States perceived Soviet efforts to occupy eastern Europe as the heralding of a new era of Communist expansion, an attempt at world domination. Why was it not entirely successful? Sample Answer "Denazification" refers to the systematic process by which occupying Allied armies and resistance fighters removed former Nazi officers and Nazi collaborators from positions of influence and forcing German civilians to own up to Nazi atrocities.
Members of the resistance did not wait for courtroom justice but executed tens of thousands of Nazi officers and collaborators on the spot. Allied representatives, on the other hand, conducted numerous investigations in order to identify collaborators.
However, denazification was not entirely successful. Some of the leaders most responsible for war crimes managed to escape detection.
German civilians interpreted the trials of Nazis as the characteristic retribution of victors rather than the well-deserved punishment of the guilty, and also believed that the real victims were the German prisoners of war still being held in Soviet camps.
Which factors led to Europe's economic recovery? Sample Answer The influx of American dollars under the Marshall Plan combined with determined rebuilding efforts by Europe saw the deprivation and misery of the late forties transformed into astonishing economic growth during the s.
Marshall Plan sustained the initial recovery with American financing; food and consumer goods became more plentiful. The demand for automobiles, washing machines, and vacuum cleaners boosted economies, and growth in all types of production eradicated most unemployment.
Recovery was also assisted by international economic cooperation such as the formation of the International Monetary Fund to stabilize the international economy, and the formation of the European Economic Community EEC, also known as the Common Marketwhich reduced tariffs on trade between several European countries and began taking steps toward European economic integration.
How did the Soviet Union reshape eastern European states? Sample Answer In eastern Europe after the war, Stalin reshaped the economy using the same methods he had employed to industrialize the Soviet Union in the s. Agriculture was forcibly collectivized, private property was nationalized, and a series of centrally planned economic directives pushed Soviet industry throughout the eastern bloc to match U.
Repression accompanied the drive for modernization: Stalin's Communist policies did, however, manage to transform the eastern-bloc states from peasant economies into technological and bureaucratically directed industrial economies. During the war, Allied imperial powers relied heavily on Asian and African troops and encouraged anti-Axis independence movements.
Now, at the close of the war, the European powers were unable to maintain their vast empires or their global influence. The exposure of colonized peoples to European barbarism led to doubts about purported European superiority.
The mass discontent that had intensified during the war was mobilized and foreign rulers driven out. How did the cold war affect the process of decolonization? Sample Answer In the cold war, as countries in Asia and Africa achieved their independence, they were subjected to superpower rivalry.
The threat of nuclear war kept the United States and the Soviet Union from engaging in direct confrontation; instead, they supported different movements and countries in the decolonizing third world.
The United States and the USSR sought to impress upon newly emerging nations the advantages of capitalism and communism, respectively, and supported regimes that subscribed to their political ideologies and agendas. How did decolonization affect European society?
Sample Answer As empires collapsed, many colonized peoples emigrated to Europe to take advantage of opportunities presented by the labor shortage after the war. Initially, these new immigrants were only given temporary, or "guest" visas to live and work in Europe, then they were supposed to return home.
However, illegal immigrants formed the vast majority of new arrivals. By8 percent of the European population was foreign-born, making Europe more diverse in terms of race, religion, ethnicity, and culture than it had ever been before.
What was the dominant philosophical movement in the postwar cultural world? Sample Answer By the end of the s, a philosophy known as existentialism had become popular, particularly among academics, intellectuals, and students. Existentialists confronted the question of what "being" involved in the face of an increasingly secular society and the twentieth-century breakdown of morality.Essay Question How Important Was Mutual Suspicion and Fear in the Origin of the Cold War SENATE HEARING, TH CONGRESS - FIDEL CASTRO: KIDNAPER (PART I) Kerensky, The Russian Provisional Government Cold War Review Questions 1.
After defeating the Germans, the United States and the Soviet Union were two nuclear-armed superpowers.
After defeating the Germans, the United States and the Soviet Union were two nuclear-armed superpowers. Cold War - Space Race. For webquest or practice, print a copy of this quiz at Cold War - Space Race webquest print page.
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Mar 20, · Can you pick the Edexcel GCSE Unit 1: Section 4. Origins of the Cold War? Can you pick the Edexcel GCSE Unit 1: Section 4.
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