The challenge takes the following form. There exist infinitely many ways of identifying the natural numbers with pure sets. Let us restrict, without essential loss of generality, our discussion to two such ways: Which of these consists solely of true identity statements:
Thomas Kuhn Science does not proceed by patient accretion of facts but by revolutionary interpretive shifts in which one 'paradigm' replaces another.
The change from one paradigm to another is not wholly justifiable or rational. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Jacques Derrida His careful analysis of language called attention to the deep paradoxes and undecidable problems implicit in texts. This contrasts with the spoken word, with its apparent immediacy of meaning and connection to the living presence of the speaker.
Through deconstruction he tries to read texts critically, displaying the self-undermining elements written down in the magin of the original text under scrutiny.
Of Grammatology, Georges Bataille Transcendence is a state of separation opposing itself to the flowing of all that is. There is not first an ego for which the object is, separated by its transcendence. The 'I' lacks all distinctness, haemorrhaging freely into death, lost in 'immanent immensity', which is without separations or limits.
Theory on Religion, Paul Feyerabend Science is much closer to myth than a scientific philosophy is prepared to admit.
A new breed of intellectuals rose to power: Against Method, Science in a Free Society, No legitimation is necessary beyond expediency. The production of knowledge is analyzed in terms of discontinuity, plurality and 'paralogy' logically unjustified conclusions.
A Report on Knowledge, The idea of the unity of science should be reconsidered. The Manifacture of Knowledge, Richard Rorty The traditional philosophical pursuit of ultimate, transcendental, foundational knowledge is not a valid or desirable enterprise.
Philosophy can not justify any program of political reform. Philosophy -like rhetorics- makes different world descriptions only look attractive. Our vocabularies can not be grounded in an appeal to 'objectivity'. The pragmatic alternative sees legitimation as 'solidarity' or culture.
Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, David Ray Griffin 'Parapsychology provides evidence against the intellectual adequacy of the late modern worldview, evidence that is particularly dramatic. This is not to say that the case against the truth of atheistic materialism rest only, or even primarily, on the question of the genuineness of the apparent paranormal interactions investigated by parapsychology.
Nevertheless, parapsychology may turn out to be of decisive importance in moving our culture from a modern to a postmodern outlook. A Report on KnowledgeLyotard introduced this notion into contemporary philosophical discourse, and proposed that his own commitment to this new and emergent global movement be grasped as a reaffirmation of the authentic modernism to be found in Adorno's philosophy for who the Enlightenment is the only road to social freedom, inevitably leading to totalitarianism.
Can the latter be avoided? Lyotard was a pro-modernist! Eco rightly claims postmodernism to be the avant-garde of the modernism of the 21th century, while others say that by depending too much upon a subjectivist and non-social conception of rationality, it moves towards irrationalism Habermas, Not only will it emphasise the continuities of nature, but the time-bound, cultural nature of knowledge.
Rather, it will support relative absolutism, or fragmental holism, which insists on the developing and jumping nature of scientific growth, and the fact that all propositions of truth are time- and context-sensitive. From Modernism to Postmodernism: Jencks definition of postmodernism in Jameson, as 'double coding' is interesting.
The combination of modern techniques with 'something else' which does take into account history and which is able to communicate with its end users in a modular way is indeed typical for the postmodern approach and its entanglement with art and the religions.
The quantity of people visiting is far less important than the quality of their experience. Contrary to what some people believe, the Web is not a mass medium.
It's a niche medium, a personal medium, and an interactive medium. Webonomics, Penguin - London,p. It challenges the fossilized limitations invoked by societies embracing the monolith of fossilized modernism and its madness.
Each culture has its right to exist in harmony with other cultures. To foster the differences between cultures is to cultivate the strength of humanity as a whole. On the negative side, its relativism, skepticism, irrational atheism and a too subjectivistic take on rationality are to be avoided.
Postmodernism cannot last, for it is defined as something 'after' modernism. A return to modernism is to be avoided.Platonism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. First published Sat Jul 18, ; substantive revision Thu Jan 18, But this step is denied by logicists and neo-logicists, who claim that the natural numbers are intrinsically tied to the cardinalities of the collections that they number.
, Reason’s Proper Study, Oxford: Clarendon. Some discipline outside of philosophy (such as mathematics or common sense) tells us that certain of these sentences are true. An Essay on Free Will Harvard University Press. Wright. C. Field and Fregean Platonism. In. The Reason’s Proper Study: Essays Towards A Neo-Fregean Philosophy of Mathematics, eds.
Hale. B. Wright. Get this from a library! The reason's proper study: essays towards a neo-Fregean philosophy of mathematics. [Bob Hale; Crispin Wright; Oxford University Press.] -- Bob Hale and Crispin Wright draw together the key writings in which they have worked out their distinctive neo-Fregean approach to the philosophy of mathematics.
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The Reason's Proper Study: Essays towards a Neo-Fregean Philosophy of Mathematics By Bob Hale; Crispin Wright Clarendon Press, Read preview Overview Philosophy of Mathematics: An Introduction to the World of Proofs and Pictures By James Robert Brown Routledge,