Resolution of Matter into Pure Substances Resolution of Matter into Pure Substances 7 July Chemistry The purpose of this laboratory was to determine how different substances have different solubilities in a given solvent. This was accomplished using the method of chromatography. The solubility of each substance was first determined by dropping a drop or two of each on a line drawn 2 inches above the bottom of a piece of paper.
September 25,Harvard University Photons with strong mutual attraction in a quantum nonlinear medium.
The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. The discovery, Lukin said, runs contrary to decades of accepted wisdom about the nature of light.
Researchers began by pumped rubidium atoms into a vacuum chamber, then used lasers to cool the cloud of atoms to just a few degrees above absolute zero. Using extremely weak laser pulses, they then fired single photons into the cloud of atoms. As the photons enter the cloud of cold atoms, Lukin said, its energy excites atoms along its path, causing the photon to slow dramatically.
As the photon moves through the cloud, that energy is handed off from atom to atom, and eventually exits the cloud with the photon.
The reason they form the never-before-seen molecules? An effect called a Rydberg blockade, Lukin said, which states that when an atom is excited, nearby atoms cannot be excited to the same degree.
In practice, the effect means that as two photons enter the atomic cloud, the first excites an atom, but must move forward before the second photon can excite nearby atoms. The result, he said, is that the two photons push and pull each other through the cloud as their energy is handed off from one atom to the next.
The challenge, however, is that quantum logic requires interactions between individual quanta so that quantum systems can be switched to perform information processing.
A number of companies — including IBM — have worked to develop systems that rely on optical routers that convert light signals into electrical signals, but those systems face their own hurdles. Lukin also suggested that the system might one day even be used to create complex three-dimensional structures — such as crystals — wholly out of light.contamination of air, water, or soil by substances that are harmful to living organisms.
Pollution can occur naturally, for example through volcanic eruptions, or as the result of human activities, such as the spilling of oil or disposal of industrial waste. The recovery of the pure enantiomers and the chiral auxiliary is easier if no covalent bonds but salts or complexes are formed during the conversion of the enantiomers into diastereomers.
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