It is meant to give the viewer a general overview of the history, mainly focused on what has made major changes in the world. Rise and Fall of an Empire on History.
With the growth of cultivation, those defeated in warfare could be taken as slaves. Female slaves were called on for sexual services, gaining freedom only when their masters died. Advert Early abolitionists arose in the form of two Jewish sects, the Essenes and the Therapeutae, who abhorred slave-owning and tried buying slaves in order to free them.
Greece The ancient Greeks preferred women and children as slaves for domestic work rather than rebellious men who were simply slaughtered.
Any child born to slave women thus had a father who was free — a status that was also conferred upon them. With the growth of the Greek city states and the commercial production of cotton the demand for agricultural slaves grew, leading to an increase in warfare. In the fifth century BC, Athens had more slaves than free citizens.
Rome The Roman Empire sprawled across the entire Mediterranean region and slave trading was big business.
Slaves were trained for all possible functions, with gladiators fighting to the death for public entertainment at the extreme end. The Roman emperors owned thousands of slaves to indulge their every whim.
They acted as clerks, secretaries and even tax agents. Thousands were worked to death mining gold and silver for the Empire. Plantation slavery began in Rome in the second century BC. Sicily witnessed a series of slave revolts, culminating in the great uprising led by Spartacus.
When it was finally crushed, 6, slaves were crucified all along the Appian way from Rome to Capua. Religion was no barrier to the slave trade — Christians, Muslims and Jews all partook.
The Black Death — a plague epidemic — made demand for domestic slaves soar in Italy. Slaves were often suspected of poisoning their masters and punishments were dire. One accused had her flesh torn off by hot pincers as she was drawn through the streets of Florence. The transatlantic trade The Portuguese inaugurated the Atlantic slave trade, soon to be joined by the Spanish.
Before long other colonial nations had poured into the Americas to plunder them. Slave labour produced sugar, cotton and tobacco. With the Indians dying out, African slaves were imported —had landed by The African nations that supplied the slaves had a long history of slavery themselves.
European colonists flocked to West Africa trading liquor, tobacco, arms and trinkets for live cargo. Thus began the notorious Middle Passage where slaves would be loaded lying down in the holds of ships, often on their sides to preserve space.
The British were the prime slavers, bringing goods from England to exchange for African slaves whom they then supplied to Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the New World. Slaves to sugar Sugar was the mainstay of slavery in Brazil, Cuba and Haiti.
In Brazil the Portuguese resisted installing even the most basic machinery to replace human labour; they worked their slaves to death within a span of a few years.
Numerous African slaves escaped to the Brazilian interior, forming their own Republic of Palmares in a famous revolt which lasted 70 years. In when Palmares fell, all the leaders committed suicide rather than be enslaved again. Haiti, under French dominance, was importing 40, slaves a year when the fuse for a spectacular revolt was lit.
But Haiti gained freedom rather than returning to slavery. Anti-Slavery International Abolitionist moves The 18th century saw the birth of abolitionist groups in the Western world. In the Danes made the slave trade illegal; Britain followed in and the Americans a year later.
Anti-Slavery International was founded in a few years before the complete abolition of the transatlantic slave trade.
But slave smuggling and slavery itself continued. Slaves did every imaginable job that their masters saw fit, with skilled slaves being hired out for further profit. Fugitives escaped under cover of night travelling over wild terrain to the Northern states and Canada — their routes became known as the Underground Railroad.
The Civil War in was the death knell of American slavery — over 38, black people died fighting in it. The 13th Amendment to the US Constitution abolished slavery. Anti-Slavery International A global menace Slavery continued, however, in other parts of the world following emancipation in North America.
Indigenous slavery in sub-Saharan Africa, debt bondage and forced labour in European colonies and domestic slavery in Nigeria and the Indian sub-continent thrived. Nine million lost their lives to forced labour and genocide in the Belgian Congo. In China a system of child slavery known as Mui Tsai, where children were sold for domestic work, persisted until the second half of the 20th century.Europe: Early Influences in the South Infrastructure and influences of the Roman and Greek civilizations of old can still be seen in the southern Europe of today.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. From about bce there was a further Greek expansion through the founding of colonies overseas. Ever since the rise of a capitalist economy and strong nation states armed with efficient military machines (c), Europe had steadily extended its power across the globe.
By , European and European derived colonies had extended the dominance of European culture over 35% of the globe. Slavery began with civilization. For hunter-gatherers slaves would have been an unaffordable luxury – there wouldn’t have been enough food to go round.
With the growth of cultivation, those defeated in warfare could be taken as slaves. Western slavery goes back 10, years to Mesopotamia, today. The Nineteenth century was an age of emancipation, nationalism, and imperialism--all of which contributed to the growth and intensification of ideological racism in Europe .
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Slavery in ancient cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as Sumer, and it was found in every civilization, including Ancient Egypt, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Ancient Greece, Rome and parts of its empire.